Analysis of fatty acids from the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 revealed that this species contained high levels of myristic acid (14:0) and linoleic acid in its glycerolipids, with minor contributions from palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid, and oleic acid. The level of 14:0 relative to total fatty acids reached nearly 50%. This 14:0 fatty acid was esterified primarily to the sn-2 position of the glycerol moiety of glycerolipids. This characteristic is unique because, in most of the cyanobacterial strains, the sn-2 position is esterified exclusively with C16 fatty acids, generally 16:0. Transformation of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with the PCC8801_1274 gene for lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) from Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 increased the level of 14:0 from 2% to 17% in total lipids and the increase in the 14:0 content was observed in all lipid classes. These findings suggest that the high content of 14:0 in Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 might be a result of the high specificity of this acyltransferase toward the 14:0-acyl-carrier protein.